Monday, November 29, 2021

All About Electronic games

 Electronic games


An electronic game is any game that uses any form of electronic to create an interactive system with which a player can play. Video games are the most common form today, and for this reason the two terms are often used interchangeably. There are other common forms of electronic game including handheld electronic games, standalone systems (e.g. pinball, slot machines, or electro-mechanical arcade games), and exclusively non-visual products (e.g. audio games).


Discount on PC and Steam Games

Teletype games


The earliest form of computer game to achieve any degree of mainstream use was the text-based Teletype game. Teletype games lack video display screens and instead present the game to the player by printing a series of characters on paper which the player reads as it emerges from the platen. Practically this means that each action taken will require a line of paper and thus a hard-copy record of the game remains after it has been played. This naturally tends to reduce the size of the gaming universe or alternatively to require a great amount of paper. As computer screens became standard during the rise of the third generation computer, text-based command line-driven language parsing Teletype games transitioned into visual interactive fiction allowing for greater depth of gameplay and reduced paper requirements. This transition was accompanied by a simultaneous shift from the mainframe environment to the personal computer.


Examples of text-based Teletype games include:

  • The Oregon Trail (1971) - the earliest versions
  • Trek73 (1973)
  • Dungeon (1975)
  • Super Star Trek (1975)
  • Adventure (1976) - the earliest versions
  • Zork (1977) - the earliest versions

Electronic handhelds

The earliest form of dedicated console, handheld electronic games are characterized by their size and portability. Used to play interactive games, handheld electronic games are often miniaturized versions of video games. The controls, display and speakers are all part of a single unit, and rather than a general-purpose screen made up of a grid of small pixels, they usually have custom displays designed to play one game. This simplicity means they can be made as small as a digital watch, which they sometimes are. The visual output of these games can range from a few small light bulbs or LED lights to calculator-like alphanumerical screens; later these were mostly displaced by liquid crystal and Vacuum fluorescent display screens with detailed images and in the case of VFD games, color. Handhelds were at their most popular from the late 1970s into the early 1990s. They are both the predecessors to and inexpensive alternatives to the handheld game console.



Examples of handheld electronic games include:

  • Mattel Auto Race (1976)
  • Simon (1978)
  • Merlin (1978)
  • Game & Watch (1979)
  • MB Omni (1980)
  • Bandai LCD Solarpower (1982)
  • Entex Adventure Vision (1982)
  • Lights Out (1995)

Pinball machines and similar devices


Since the introduction of electro mechanics to the pinball machine in 1933's Contact, pinball has become increasingly dependent on electronics as a means to keep score on the backglass and to provide quick impulses on the playfield (as with bumpers and flippers) for exciting gameplay. Unlike games with electronic visual displays, pinball has retained a physical display that is viewed on a table through glass. Similar forms of game such as pachinko have also become increasingly dependent on electronics in modern times.


Examples of pinball games include:

  • The Addams Family (1991)
  • Indiana Jones: The Pinball Adventure (1993)
  • Star Trek: The Next Generation (1993)

Redemption games and merchandisers

Redemption games such as Skee Ball have been around since the days of the carnival game - well earlier than the development of the electronic game, however with modern advances many of these games have been re-worked to employ electronic scoring and other game mechanics. The use of electronic scoring mechanisms has allowed carnival or arcade attendants to take a more passive role, simply exchanging prizes for electronically dispensed coupons and occasionally emptying out the coin boxes or banknote acceptors of the more popular games.

Merchandisers such as the Claw Crane are more recent electronic games in which the player must accomplish a seemingly simple task (e.g. remotely controlling a mechanical arm) with sufficient ability to earn a reward.



Examples of redemption games include:

  • Whac-A-Mole (1976)
  • Skee Ball - modern electric versions

Examples of merchandisers include:

  • Claw crane (1980)


Slot machines

The slot machine is a casino gambling machine with three or more reels which spin when a button is pushed. Though slot machines were originally operated mechanically by a lever on the side of the machine (the one arm) instead of an electronic button on the front panel as used on today's models, many modern machines still have a "legacy lever" in addition to the button on the front. Slot machines include a currency detector that validates the coin or money inserted to play. The machine pays off based on patterns of symbols visible on the front of the machine when it stops. Modern computer technology has resulted in many variations on the slot machine concept.

Audio games

An audio game is a game played on an electronic device such as but not limited to a personal computer. It is similar to a video game save that the only feedback device is audible rather than visual. Audio games originally started out as 'blind accessible'-games, but recent interest in audio games has come from sound artists, game accessibility researchers, mobile game developers, and mainstream video gamers. Most audio games run on a computer platform, although there are a few audio games for handhelds and video game consoles. Audio games feature the same variety of genres as video games, such as adventure games, racing games, etc.

Examples of audio games include:

  • Real Sound: Kaze no Regret (1997)
  • Chillingham (2004)
  • BBBeat (2005)

Tabletop games

A tabletop audio game is an audio game that is designed to be played on a table rather than a handheld game.



Examples of tabletop audio games include:

  • Brain Shift (1998)
  • Who Wants to be a Millionaire? (2000)

Video games

A video game is a game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device. However, with the popular use of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device.

Term "digital game" has been offered by some in academia as an alternative term.


Arcade games

Electronic video arcade games make extensive use of solid state electronics and integrated circuits. In the past coin-operated arcade video games generally used custom per-game hardware often with multiple CPUs, highly specialized sound and graphics chips and/or boards, and the latest in computer graphics display technology. Recent arcade game hardware is often based on modified video game console hardware or high end pc components. Arcade games may feature specialized ambiance or control accessories, including fully enclosed dynamic cabinets with force feedback controls, dedicated light guns, rear-projection displays, reproductions of car or plane cockpits and even motorcycle or horse-shaped controllers, or even highly dedicated controllers such as dancing mats and fishing rods. These accessories are usually what set modern arcade games apart from PC or console games, and they provide an experience that some gamers consider more immersing and realistic.



Examples of arcade games include:

  • Galaxy Game (1971)
  • Pong (1972)
  • Space Invaders (1978)
  • Galaxian (1979)
  • Pac-Man (1980)
  • Battlezone (1980)
  • Donkey Kong (1981)
  • Street Fighter II (1991)
  • Mortal Kombat (1992)
  • Fatal Fury (1992)
  • Killer Instinct (1994)
  • King of Fighters (1994–2005)
  • Time Crisis (1995)
  • Dance Dance Revolution (1998)
  • DrumMania (1999)
  • House of the Dead (1998)

Computer video games

A personal computer video game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a video game played on a personal computer, rather than on a video game console or arcade machine. The vast majority of computer games today are video games, and since the earliest days of the medium, visual displays such as the cathode ray tube have been used to relay game information.

Console games

A console game is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. The game consists of manipulable images (and usually sounds) generated by a video game console, and displayed on a television or similar audio-video system. The game itself is usually controlled and manipulated using a handheld device connected to the console called a controller. The controller generally contains a number of buttons and directional controls (such as analog joysticks) each of which has been assigned a purpose for interacting with and controlling the images on the screen. The display, speakers, console, and controls of a console can also be incorporated into one small object known as a handheld game console.

Console games are most frequently differentiated between by their compatibility with consoles belonging in the following categories:

  • Traditional console, also called "home console" - A multi-game system that uses the screen of a television to produce graphics.
  • Handheld game console - A multi-game system the screen and controls of which are compacted into a single handheld device.
  • Dedicated console - A (typically) single game system of either the Plug and play variety or the LCD game.
  • Educational console - A multi-game console supporting primarily educational games. These consoles are often simplified for use by children.
Within these categories the systems are differentiated between by their manufacturer and generation (corresponding to the year of their release). Console games are also often differentiated by game genre.


Hybrid or combined games

Game hybridization refers to the integration of an interactive, electronic component into a game. A "hybrid" or "combined game" is any tabletop game where an electronic device and/or application is an element crucial to the gameplay. These games are a catalyst for creating new game mechanics. Important consequences of this technology are: the possible substitution of the gamemaster or person who leads a game for an application or device, which can be more fair, with less room for bias, cheating or favoritism, and can be intelligently randomized; the possibility of using artificial intelligence and machine learning in games; greater randomization of events; possibility of conducting fast and advanced mathematical calculations, making some complex games easier or available to a wider group of consumers; and enhanced player immersion with the aid of various stimuli like sound or animation.

One may categorize hybrid games as follows:

  • Purpose-built devices: Where the game uses a device that has certain functions (like an electronic dice or spinner) to play out the game. An example would be "Monopoly: Electronic Banking" (2007) by Hasbro, where all players have an electronic card which carries virtual Monopoly currency, and use a machine to increase and deduct their earnings.
  • Beacon technology games are mobile, digital games that employ BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) Beacons to track and control players movements and actions. An example: Artifact Technologies created a mobile, digital board game, called BattleKasters where players physically walk around to cast spells or unlock cards.
  • Augmented Reality: board games that interact with a mobile device and immerse the player in the virtual environment through animation, sound and/or vibrations. Example: Roar! by Trefl, which utilizes sound as part of the gameplay.

Electro-mechanical games

These were types of arcade games similar to arcade video games but relying on electro-mechanical components to produce sounds or images rather than a cathode ray tube screen. These were popular during the 1960s and 1970s, but video games eventually overtook them in popularity during the golden age of video arcade games that began in 1978.

A popular early example was Sega's Periscope in 1966. It was an early submarine simulator and light gun shooter, which used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine. Sega later produced gun games which resemble first-person shooter video games, but were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to the ancient zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen. An early example of this was the light gun game Duck Hunt, which Sega released in 1969; it featured animated moving targets on a screen, printed out the player's score on a ticket, and had sound effects that were volume controllable.

Non-human games

With the development of technology geared toward electronic entertainment of animals (typically pets), video games for pets have also been created. Since the majority of animals lack opposable thumbs, the fine motor skills required for use in most gaming is unavailable to these animals. Furthermore, the visual perception of many animals is influenced by a different visible spectrum than humans. Techniques that de-emphasize manual control and visual components have been developed to circumvent these problems beginning with the development of television for pets. From this point, developers have branched out into the realm of electronic games with such products as Mice Arena (for mice), Chicken Petman, and Cyberpounce (for cats).

Sunday, November 28, 2021

What is Butter Chicken & How to make it at home ?

 What is Butter Chicken ?



Chunks of grilled chicken (tandoori chicken) cooked in a smooth buttery & creamy tomato based gravy is known as Butter chicken or murgh makhani. It was invented by Kundan Lal Gujral, who was the owner of a popular restaurant named Moti Mahal in Delhi.

Tender and juicy chicken thanks to a deliciously spiced yogurt marinade, Butter Chicken is ridiculously easy to make. The curry sauce is out of this world!

I know you all love food with beautiful, bold flavors, and nothing beats sitting down to a great curry to finish off a chaotic day. The aromas alone transport you to a completely different world.

The best part about cooking up Butter Chicken at home is the ingredients list. Every ingredient is easy to find from any grocery store or supermarket.


WIN-WIN!


A super easy, full flavored butter chicken recipe that rivals any eatery or take out!

Similar to Chicken Tikka Masala, Butter Chicken is one of the most popular curries at any Indian restaurant around the world. Aromatic golden chicken pieces in an incredible creamy curry sauce, this Butter Chicken recipe is one of the best you will try! You will love how easy it is to make in the comfort of your own home, especially with garlic butter rice and fresh homemade Naan bread.


Why is it called butter chicken ?

Prepared in a gravy with cream gives the curry sauce a silky smooth and rich texture. Utmost diners are known to add in riotous quantities of butter, which as a result can leave you feeling bloated or ill from the slick of grease. 

 Still, we found while testing the recipe that we prefer to start the sauce off in Ghee (clarified butter, or you can use a combination of butter and oil). 

Adding cream at the end of cuisine provides enough of that richness you look for in an authentic butter chicken. Our less oily interpretation leaves you feeling good and satisfied. 


How do you make homemade butter chicken ?

A milder curry when compared to other Indian curries makes Butter Chicken a favorite among families with little ones. You can certainly add as much or as little chili as you wish. In other words, you are in total control of how spicy you make it.

As mentioned above, the juicy and tender, flavor infused chicken starts with an easy yogurt marinade made from scratch: plain yogurt, fresh garlic and ginger, and easy to find spices.

You can use boneless, skinless chicken thighs or breasts. We prefer dark meat, but go with what you like.

  • First, mix your yogurt marinade together.
  • Marinate chicken for 20 minutes, or overnight if time allows. (The longer it marinates, the more tender your chicken will be.)
  • Sear chicken in a skillet or pan. Keep those charred bits on the pan to make your sauce. Browned bits = flavor. If you have too many burnt pieces stuck to the pan, you can discard some of them if you wish.
  • Finally, make your curry sauce in the same skillet.


What spices go in butter chicken ?

Easy to find spices, for example: Garam masala, Turmeric, Cumin, Red Chili Powder and Salt, are all you need to make a great sauce. You may even already have some of these in your kitchen cupboards! If you don’t, there’s no doubt you may use them again.


INGREDIENTS





For the chicken marinade:

  • 28 oz (800g) boneless and skinless chicken thighs or breasts cut into bite-sized pieces
  • 1/2 cup plain yogurt
  • 1 1/2 tablespoons minced garlic
  • 1 tablespoon minced ginger (or finely grated)
  • 2 teaspoons garam masala
  • 1 teaspoon turmeric
  • 1 teaspoon ground cumin
  • 1 teaspoon red chili powder
  • 1 teaspoon of salt



For the sauce:

  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 2 tablespoons ghee (or 1 tbs butter + 1 tbs oil)
  • 1 large onion, sliced or chopped
  • 1 1/2 tablespoons garlic, minced
  • 1 tablespoon ginger, minced or finely grated
  • 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cumin
  • 1 1/2 teaspoons garam masala
  • 1 teaspoon ground coriander
  • 14 oz (400 g) crushed tomatoes
  • 1 teaspoon red chili powder (adjust to your taste preference)
  • 1 1/4 teaspoons salt (or to taste)
  • 1 cup of heavy or thickened cream (or evaporated milk to save calories)
  • 1 tablespoon sugar
  • 1/2 teaspoon kasoori methi (or dried fenugreek leaves)


INSTRUCTIONS

  • In a bowl, combine chicken with all of the ingredients for the chicken marinade; let marinate for 30 minutes to an hour (or overnight if time allows).
  • Heat oil in a large skillet or pot over medium-high heat. When sizzling, add chicken pieces in batches of two or three, making sure not to crowd the pan. Fry until browned for only 3 minutes on each side. Set aside and keep warm. (You will finish cooking the chicken in the sauce.)
  • Heat butter or ghee in the same pan. Fry the onions until they start to sweat (about 6 minutes) while scraping up any browned bits stuck on the bottom of the pan. 
  • Add garlic and ginger and sauté for 1 minute until fragrant, then add ground coriander, cumin and garam masala. Let cook for about 20 seconds until fragrant, while stirring occasionally.
  • Add crushed tomatoes, chili powder and salt. Let simmer for about 10-15 minutes, stirring occasionally until sauce thickens and becomes a deep brown red color.
  • Remove from heat, scoop mixture into a blender and blend until smooth. You may need to add a couple tablespoons of water to help it blend (up to 1/4 cup). Work in batches depending on the size of your blender.
  • Pour the puréed sauce back into the pan. Stir the cream, sugar and crushed kasoori methi (or fenugreek leaves) through the sauce. Add the chicken with juices back into the pan and cook for an additional 8-10 minutes until chicken is cooked through and the sauce is thick and bubbling.
  • Garnish with chopped cilantro and serve with fresh, hot garlic butter rice and fresh homemade Naan bread!

NOTES

OPTIONAL: To thin out the sauce, add a couple tablespoons of ghee or butter at the end of cooking, and gently simmer it through. Alternatively, add a small amount of water.


NUTRITION

Calories: 580kcal | Carbohydrates: 17g | Protein: 36g | Fat: 41g | Saturated Fat: 19g | Cholesterol: 250mg | Sodium: 1601mg | Potassium: 973mg | Fiber: 3g | Sugar: 8g | Vitamin A: 1895IU | Vitamin C: 19.5mg | Calcium: 171mg | Iron: 4.1mg




Sunday, November 21, 2021

Cryptocurrency (Bitcoin, etc.)

 Cryptocurrency (Bitcoin, etc.)

A cryptocurrency, or crypto is a collection of double data which is designed to work as a medium of exchange. Individual coin power records are stored in a census, which is a motorized database using strong cryptography to secure trade records, to control the creation of fresh coins, and to corroborate the transfer of coin power. Cryptocurrencies are generally edict currencies, as they are not backed by or convertible into a commodity. Some crypto schemes use validators to maintain the crypto-currency. In a substantiation-of- stake model, owners put up their commemoratives as collateral. In return, they get authority over the honorary in proportion to the amount they stake. Generally, these token stakers get fresh power in the honorary over time via network freights, lately formed commemoratives or other analogous price mechanisms. Cryptocurrency does not live in physical form (like paper capitalist) and is generally not issued by a central authority. Cryptocurrencies generally use decentralized control as opposed to central bank digital currency (CBDC). When a cryptocurrency is formed or created former to allocation or issued by a single issuer, it's generally considered centralized. When executed with decentralized control, each cryptocurrency works through distributed census technology, generally a blockchain, that serves as a public financial trade database. 

 Bitcoin, first released as open- source software in 2009, is the first decentralized cryptocurrency. Since the release of bitcoin, multitudinous other cryptocurrencies have been created. 

History

In 1983, the American cryptographer David Chaum conceived an anonymous cryptographic electronic plutocrat called ecash. Latterly, in 1995, he enforced it through Digicash, an early form of cryptographic electronic payments which needed stoner software in order to withdraw notes from a bank and designate specific translated keys before it can be transferred to a philanthropist. This allowed the digital currency to be untraceable by the issuing bank, the government, or any third party. 
 
 In 1996, the National Security Agency published a paper entitled How to Make a Mint the Cryptography of Anonymous Electronic Cash, describing a Cryptocurrency system, first publishing it in an MIT mailing list and latterly in 1997, in The American Law Review (Vol. 46, Issue 4). 
In 1998, Wei Dai published a description of"b- plutocrat", characterized as an anonymous, distributed electronic cash system. Shortly later, Nick Szabo described bit gold. Like bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that would follow it, bit gold (not to be confused with the after gold- grounded exchange, BitGold) was described as an electronic currency system which needed druggies to complete a evidence of work function with results being cryptographically put together and published. 

 
 In 2009, the first decentralized cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was created by presumably pseudonymous inventor Satoshi Nakamoto. It used SHA-256, a cryptographic hash function, in its evidence-of- work scheme. In April 2011, Namecoin was created as an attempt at forming a decentralized DNS, which would make internet suppression veritably delicate. Soon later, in October 2011, Litecoin was released. It used scrypt as its hash function rather of SHA-256. Another notable cryptocurrency, Peercoin, used a evidence-of- work/ evidence-of- stake mongrel. 
On 6 August 2014, the UK blazoned its Treasury had commissioned a study of cryptocurrencies, and what part, if any, they could play in the UK frugality. The study was also to report on whether regulation should be considered. Its final report was published in 2018, and it issued a discussion on cryptoassets and stablecoins in January 2021. 
 
 In June 2021, El Salvador came the first country to accept Bitcoin as legal tender, after the Legislative Assembly had suggested 62 – 22 to pass a bill submitted by President Nayib Bukele classifying the cryptocurrency as similar. 
In August 2021, Cuba followed with Resolution 215 to accept Bitcoin as legal tender, which will circumventU.S. warrants. 
 
 In September 2021, the government of China, the single largest request for cryptocurrency, declared all cryptocurrency deals illegal, completing a crackdown on cryptocurrency that had preliminarily banned the operation of interposers and miners within China. 

Formal Description 

 According to Jan Lansky, a cryptocurrency is a system that meets six conditions. 
 The system doesn't bear a central authority; its state is maintained through distributed agreement. 
The system keeps an overview of cryptocurrency units and their power. 
 The system defines whether new cryptocurrency units can becreated. However, the system defines the circumstances of their origin and how to determine the power of these new units, If new cryptocurrency units can be created. 
 Power of cryptocurrency units can be proved simply cryptographically. 
 The system allows deals to be performed in which power of the cryptographic units is changed. A sale statement can only be issued by an reality proving the current power of these units. 
 Still, the system performs at most one of them, If two different instructions for changing the power of the same cryptographic units are contemporaneously entered. 

 In March 2018, the word cryptocurrency was added to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 

Altcoins

Tokens, cryptocurrencies, and other types of digital assets that are not bitcoin are collectively known as alternative cryptocurrencies, typically shortened to "altcoins" or "alt coins". Paul Vigna of The Wall Street Journal also described altcoins as "alternative versions of bitcoin" given its role as the model protocol for altcoin designers. The term is commonly used to describe coins and tokens created after bitcoin.

Altcoins often have underlying differences with bitcoin. For example, Litecoin aims to process a block every 2.5 minutes, rather than bitcoin's 10 minutes, which allows Litecoin to confirm transactions faster than bitcoin. Another example is Ethereum, which has smart contract functionality that allows decentralized applications to be run on its blockchain. Ethereum was the most used blockchain in 2020, according to Bloomberg News. In 2016, it had the largest "following" of any altcoin, according to the New York Times.

Significant rallies across altcoin markets are often referred to as an "altseason".


Stablecoins

Stablecoins are altcoins that are designed to maintain a stable level of purchasing power.

Architecture

Decentralized cryptocurrency is produced by the entire cryptocurrency system inclusively, at a rate which is defined when the system is created and which is intimately known. In centralized banking and profitable systems similar as the US Federal Reserve System, commercial boards or governments control the force of currency. In the case of decentralized cryptocurrency, companies or governments can not produce new units, and haven't so far handed backing for other enterprises, banks or commercial realities which hold asset value measured in it. The underpinning specialized system upon which decentralized cryptocurrencies are grounded was created by the group or individual known as Satoshi Nakamoto. 
 
 As of May 2018, over cryptocurrency specifications was. Within a evidence-of- work cryptocurrency system similar as Bitcoin, the safety, integrity and balance of checks is maintained by a community of mutually distrustful parties appertained to as miners who use their computers to help validate and timestamp deals, adding them to the tally in agreement with a particular timestamping scheme. In a evidence-of- stake (PoS) blockchain, deals are validated by holders of the associated cryptocurrency, occasionally grouped together in stake pools. 
Utmost cryptocurrencies are designed to gradationally drop the product of that currency, placing a cap on the total quantum of that currency that will ever be in rotation. Compared with ordinary currencies held by fiscal institutions or kept as cash on hand, cryptocurrencies can be more delicate for seizure by law enforcement. 

Blockchain

The validity of each cryptocurrency's coins is handed by a blockchain. A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography. Each block generally contains a hash pointer as a link to a former block, a timestamp and sale data. By design, blockchains are innately resistant to revision of the data. It's"an open, distributed tally that can record deals between two parties efficiently and in a empirical and endless way". For use as a distributed tally, a blockchain is generally managed by a peer-to- peer network inclusively clinging to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block can not be altered retroactively without the revision of all posterior blocks, which requires conspiracy of the network maturity. 
 
Blockchains are secure by design and are an illustration of a distributed computing system with high Intricate fault forbearance. Decentralized agreement has thus been achieved with a blockchain. 

Nodes

In the world of Cryptocurrency, a knot is a computer that connects to a cryptocurrency network. The knot supports the applicable cryptocurrency's network through either; relaying deals, confirmation or hosting a dupe of the blockchain. In terms of relaying deals each network computer ( knot) has a dupe of the blockchain of the cryptocurrency it supports, when a sale is made the knot creating the sale broadcasts details of the sale using encryption to other bumps throughout the knot network so that the sale (and every other sale) is known. 
 
 Knot possessors are either levies, those hosted by the organisation or body responsible for developing the cryptocurrency blockchain network technology or those that are seduced to host a knot to admit prices from hosting the knot network. 

Timestamping
.
Cryptocurrencies use various timestamping schemes to "prove" the validity of transactions added to the blockchain ledger without the need for a trusted third party.

The first timestamping scheme invented was the proof-of-work scheme. The most widely used proof-of-work schemes are based on SHA-256 and scrypt.

Some other hashing algorithms that are used for proof-of-work include CryptoNight, Blake, SHA-3, and X11.

The proof-of-stake is a method of securing a cryptocurrency network and achieving distributed consensus through requesting users to show ownership of a certain amount of currency. It is different from proof-of-work systems that run difficult hashing algorithms to validate electronic transactions. The scheme is largely dependent on the coin, and there's currently no standard form of it. Some cryptocurrencies use a combined proof-of-work and proof-of-stake scheme.

Mining

In cryptocurrency networks, mining is a validation of transactions. For this effort, successful miners obtain new cryptocurrency as a reward. The reward decreases transaction fees by creating a complementary incentive to contribute to the processing power of the network. The rate of generating hashes, which validate any transaction, has been increased by the use of specialized machines such as FPGAs and ASICs running complex hashing algorithms like SHA-256 and scrypt. This arms race for cheaper-yet-efficient machines has existed since the day the first cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was introduced in 2009. With more people venturing into the world of virtual currency, generating hashes for this validation has become far more complex over the years, with miners having to invest large sums of money on employing multiple high performance ASICs. Thus the value of the currency obtained for finding a hash often does not justify the amount of money spent on setting up the machines, the cooling facilities to overcome the heat they produce, and the electricity required to run them. Favorite regions for mining include those with cheap electricity, a cold climate, and jurisdictions with clear and conducive regulations. As of July 2019, bitcoin's electricity consumption is estimated to about 7 gigawatts, 0.2% of the global total, or equivalent to that of Switzerland.

Some miners pool resources, sharing their processing power over a network to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block. A "share" is awarded to members of the mining pool who present a valid partial proof-of-work.

As of February 2018, the Chinese Government halted trading of virtual currency, banned initial coin offerings and shut down mining. Many Chinese miners have since relocated to Canada and Texas. One company is operating data centers for mining operations at Canadian oil and gas field sites, due to low gas prices. In June 2018, Hydro Quebec proposed to the provincial government to allocate 500 MW to crypto companies for mining. According to a February 2018 report from Fortune, Iceland has become a haven for cryptocurrency miners in part because of its cheap electricity.

In March 2018, the city of Plattsburgh in upstate New York put an 18-month moratorium on all cryptocurrency mining in an effort to preserve natural resources and the "character and direction" of the city.

Wallets

A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" (address) or seed which can be used to receive or spend the cryptocurrency. With the private key, it is possible to write in the public ledger, effectively spending the associated cryptocurrency. With the public key, it is possible for others to send currency to the wallet.

There exist multiple methods of storing keys or seed in a wallet from using paper wallets which are traditional public, private or seed keys written on paper to using hardware wallets which are dedicated hardware to securely store your wallet information, using a digital wallet which is a computer with a software hosting your wallet information, hosting your wallet using an exchange where cryptocurrency is traded. or by storing your wallet information on a digital medium such as plaintext.

Anonymity

Bitcoin is pseudonymous rather than anonymous in that the cryptocurrency within a wallet is not tied to people, but rather to one or more specific keys (or "addresses"). Thereby, bitcoin owners are not identifiable, but all transactions are publicly available in the blockchain. Still, cryptocurrency exchanges are often required by law to collect the personal information of their users.

Additions such as Monero, Zerocoin, Zerocash and CryptoNote have been suggested, which would allow for additional anonymity and fungibility.

Economics

Cryptocurrencies are used primarily outside existing banking and governmental institutions and are exchanged over the Internet.

Block rewards
Proof-of-work cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin, offer block rewards incentives for miners. There has been an implicit belief that whether miners are paid by block rewards or transaction fees does not affect the security of the blockchain, but a study suggests that this may not be the case under certain circumstances.

The rewards paid to miners increase the supply of the cryptocurrency. By making sure that verifying transactions is a costly business, the integrity of the network can be preserved as long as benevolent nodes control a majority of computing power. The verification algorithm requires a lot of processing power, and thus electricity in order to make verification costly enough to accurately validate public blockchain. Not only do miners have to factor in the costs associated with expensive equipment necessary to stand a chance of solving a hash problem, they further must consider the significant amount of electrical power in search of the solution. Generally, the block rewards outweigh electricity and equipment costs, but this may not always be the case.

The current value, not the long-term value, of the cryptocurrency supports the reward scheme to incentivize miners to engage in costly mining activities. Some sources claim that the current bitcoin design is very inefficient, generating a welfare loss of 1.4% relative to an efficient cash system. The main source for this inefficiency is the large mining cost, which is estimated to be US$360 Million per year. This translates into users being willing to accept a cash system with an inflation rate of 230% before being better off using bitcoin as a means of payment. However, the efficiency of the bitcoin system can be significantly improved by optimizing the rate of coin creation and minimizing transaction fees. Another potential improvement is to eliminate inefficient mining activities by changing the consensus protocol altogether.

Increased regulation in 2021

The rise in the popularity of cryptocurrencies and their adoption by financial institutions has led some governments to assess whether regulation is needed to protect users. The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has defined cryptocurrency-related services as "virtual asset service providers" (VASPs) and recommended that they be regulated with the same money laundering (AML) and know your customer (KYC) requirements as financial institutions.

In May 2020, the Joint Working Group on interVASP Messaging Standards published "IVMS 101", a universal common language for communication of required originator and beneficiary information between VASPs. The FATF and financial regulators were informed as the data model was developed.

In June 2020, FATF updated its guidance to include the "Travel Rule" for cryptocurrencies, a measure which mandates that VASPs obtain, hold, and exchange information about the originators and beneficiaries of virtual asset transfers. Subsequent standardized protocol specifications recommended using JSON for relaying data between VASPs and identity services. As of December 2020, the IVMS 101 data model has yet to be finalized and ratified by the three global standard setting bodies that created it.

The European Commission published a digital finance strategy in September 2020. This included a draft regulation on Markets in Crypto-Assets (MiCA), which aimed to provide a comprehensive regulatory framework for digital assets in the EU.

On 10 June 2021, The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision proposed that banks that held cryptocurrency assets must set aside capital to cover all potential losses. For instance, if a bank were to hold bitcoin worth $2 billion, it would be required to set aside enough capital to cover the entire $2 billion. This is a more extreme standard than banks are usually held to when it comes to other assets. However, this is a proposal and not a regulation.


Legality

The legal status of cryptocurrencies varies substantially from country to country and is still undefined or changing in many of them. At least one study has shown that broad generalizations about the use of bitcoin in illicit finance are significantly overstated and that blockchain analysis is an effective crime fighting and intelligence gathering tool. While some countries have explicitly allowed their use and trade, others have banned or restricted it. According to the Library of Congress, an "absolute ban" on trading or using cryptocurrencies applies in eight countries: Algeria, Bolivia, Egypt, Iraq, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United Arab Emirates. An "implicit ban" applies in another 15 countries, which include Bahrain, Bangladesh, China, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Lesotho, Lithuania, Macau, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Taiwan. In the United States and Canada, state and provincial securities regulators, coordinated through the North American Securities Administrators Association, are investigating "bitcoin scams" and ICOs in 40 jurisdictions.

Various government agencies, departments, and courts have classified bitcoin differently. China Central Bank banned the handling of bitcoins by financial institutions in China in early 2014.

In Russia, though owning cryptocurrency is legal, its residents are only allowed to purchase goods from other residents using Russian ruble while nonresidents are allowed to use foreign currency. Regulations and bans that apply to bitcoin probably extend to similar cryptocurrency systems.

In August 2018, the Bank of Thailand announced its plans to create its own cryptocurrency, the Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC).

Advertising bans

Cryptocurrency advertisements have been temporarily banned on Facebook, Google, Twitter, Bing, Snapchat, LinkedIn and MailChimp. Chinese internet platforms Baidu, Tencent, and Weibo have also prohibited bitcoin advertisements. The Japanese platform Line and the Russian platform Yandex have similar prohibitions.

Technological limitations

There are also purely technical elements to consider. For example, technological advancement in cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin result in high up-front costs to miners in the form of specialized hardware and software. Cryptocurrency transactions are normally irreversible after a number of blocks confirm the transaction. Additionally, cryptocurrency private keys can be permanently lost from local storage due to malware, data loss or the destruction of the physical media. This precludes the cryptocurrency from being spent, resulting in its effective removal from the markets.


Wednesday, November 17, 2021

Web Hosting

 Web Hosting

What is web hosting?

The basic infrastructure that puts your website on the internet

Web hosting is an online service that allows you to publish your website files onto the internet. So, anyone who has access to the internet has access to your website. In practice, it usually refers to the service you get from a web hosting provider like one.com.

While you can theoretically host an actual server for your website at home, relying on a web hosting service provider offers lots of benefits.


History

Until 1991, the Internet was restricted to use only "... for research and education in the sciences and engineering ..." and was used for email, telnet, FTP and USENET traffic—but only a tiny number of web pages. The World Wide Web protocols had only just been written and not until the end of 1993 would there be a graphical web browser for Mac or Windows computers. Even after there was some opening up of internet access, the situation was confused[clarification needed] until 1995.

To host a website on the internet, an individual or company would need their own computer or server. As not all companies had the budget or expertise to do this, web hosting services began to offer to host users' websites on their own servers, without the client needing to own the necessary infrastructure required to operate the website. The owners of the websites, also called webmasters, would be able to create a website that would be hosted on the web hosting service's server and published to the web by the web hosting service.

As the number of users on the World Wide Web grew, the pressure for companies, both large and small, to have an online presence grew. By 1995, companies such as GeoCities, Angelfire and Tripod were offering free hosting.


How does web hosting work?

In summary, companies like us rent out services and technologies to host your websites on the internet. Once you’ve chosen your domain name and signed up to a hosting plan, then your website is accessible on the internet.

When you use web hosting services, your web host is responsible for making sure your server is up and running. Not only that, but it is also a hosts job to prevent any security breaches and store all your files, assets and databases onto the server.

If you choose one.com to host your website, we offer many other services to enhance and protect your site.


What types of web hosting are there?

Most web hosts will offer different types of hosting and each will vary in cost. It all depends on your websites needs. We've compiled a list below to help you understand, which type of hosting is best suited to you.


Shared Hosting

Shared hosting is when a web hosting provider hosts a number of different websites on the same server. It is the most affordable form of hosting because you share the same server, so you split costs. If you are looking to start a blog or have a business that's just starting up, then shared hosting is a good option.

In the past, sharing a server could lead to problems where a spike in traffic or resource usage from a single site would slow down its “neighboring” websites. However, these days web hosting subscriptions come with a generous amount of resources that ensure good performance.


WordPress Hosting

WordPress Hosting simply means hosting that has been optimized for WordPress on a server level to ensure smooth sailing. 

How is WordPress different from regular hosting? While details vary by provider, most WordPress hosting packages offer these common traits: 

  • Simple one-click installation that avoids the dozen or so manual steps in configuring a new WordPress site. At one.com, WordPress installs automatically in under a minute. 
  • Server configurations optimised for faster loading of WordPress sites. This could include performance cache optimisations and other tweaks. 
  • Security measures to protect against common WordPress vulnerabilities. As WordPress powers over 30% of the web, it regularly comes under attack. You might also come across “Managed WordPress”, which often refers to a pre-defined secure environment that restricts usage of unsupported or vulnerable plugins. 

WordPress hosting can run on a shared, VPS or dedicated servers.


VPS Hosting

VPS stands for Virtual Private Server. Like shared hosting, websites that run on VPS share a physical server with other websites. However, each VPS tenant has its own partition with guaranteed dedicated resources. There’s often more memory, storage and processing power available – with a price tag to match. 

VPS hosting is recommended for highly experienced users with server management skills. VPS customers have root access to their partition and can configure their server software, for example Ubuntu, CentOS or Windows Server. This provides a high level of customization to run web apps built for those systems. 

You might come across “Business Hosting” or “Premium Hosting”, which are generic terms that some hosting providers associate with VPS Hosting managed by their in-house experts. However, levels of support, subscription details and prices vary significantly, so make sure you research these services thoroughly before signing up.


Dedicated Hosting

Dedicated hosting means you have the entire server to yourself. It gives you access like a VPS, but you don’t have to share the server with other sites or apps. Effectively, you are leasing a physical web server housed at your service provider’s facility. You also have professional support and expertise on hand when needed.

This top-end web hosting is only warranted for highly demanding enterprise-grade websites. Small and medium-sized businesses do not need to spend thousands each month to rent a dedicated web server for their business.


Cloud Hosting

These days, cloud hosting has become a bit of a nebulous term. So, we would strongly recommend looking closely at what you are getting if you are signing up for “Cloud Hosting”.

In the beginning, “cloud hosting” referred to a VPS setup scalable to multiple servers; this way, if your web application had a sudden traffic spike, the system would be able to provision more resources and keep things running smoothly. Cloud hosting would have a more variable pricing model and fluid specs as a result.

However, as the popularity of cloud computing has surged, some companies have started to co-op the term for their regular shared or VPS hosting. Other providers like Amazon Web Services or Microsoft Azure offer cloud computing services, which usually include cloud hosting in an array of other advanced tools for cloud-based operations. While possible, hosting a typical website with one of these “hyperscalers” operating millions of servers can present a high technical hurdle


What is the best web hosting service?

Web hosting offered by service providers like one.com come with a variety of specifications and packages. Here is what to look out for when you’re shopping: 

  • Any limitations on bandwidth and traffic; some web hosts charge extra once you hit a certain number.
  • Built-in Website Builder or one-click WordPress installations that make it easy for you to get your website online quickly
  • Generous amount of storage, especially nowadays with big media files taking up lots of space.
  • Email hosting bundled with your website hosting plan. Many providers charge extra per email account or email hosting in general.
  • Variety of domain registration services that make it a one-stop-shop. Having your domain registered with one provider and hosted with another is a hassle. 
  • Great customer support that’s available when you need it. As an example, one.com offers 24/7 chat support in many languages.
How much does website hosting cost?

Your website hosting cost will vary by provider. Technically you can use a free web hosting service, although, we do recommend avoiding them.

Free vs Paid web hosting

By opting for free hosting, you may encounter problems such as unwanted advertising on your page and their domain name in your URL. When you pay for web hosting, you are in full control of what content is on your website.

There are numerous reason for why you should choose paid web hosting over free web hosting:

  1. Bandwidth & disk space - Free web hosts will give a lower bandwidth and limited disk space to their users. Paid web hosting can offer unlimited bandwidth and disk space.
  2. Content limitations - Unlike paid web hosting, with free hosting the number of images and videos you can upload, is limited.
  3. Security breaches - Paid web hosting usually comes with much higher security. By using a free web hosting provider, you have a higher risk of a security breach. this means your customer's credit card information and other data can be stolen.
  4. Domain name & URL - Free hosting providers will give you a domain name, with their name in your URL. When you use paid hosting providers, you will get a custom URL and can choose your domain name.
  5. Server speed - Free web hosting servers often overload, which means you may have to wait through a few hours of scheduled downtime. Paid hosting providers offer high-speed drives, with guaranteed uptime.
Where do domains come into the picture with website hosting?

Let’s think of your website as a house built from individual files. The web hosting is the land the house (website) is on, and the domain is its address. When someone types in the domain name into their web browser or clicks a web link, the domain is the means through which the browser locates the right server and downloads the website files.

Security

Because web hosting services host websites belonging to their customers, online security is an important concern. When a customer agrees to use a web hosting service, they are relinquishing control of the security of their site to the company that is hosting the site. The level of security that a web hosting service offers is extremely important to a prospective customer and can be a major consideration when considering which provider a customer may choose.

Web hosting servers can be attacked by malicious users in different ways, including uploading malware or malicious code onto a hosted website. These attacks may be done for different reasons, including stealing credit card data, launching a Distributed Denial of Service Attack (DDoS) or spamming.



Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3 5G (Phantom Black)

 Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3 5G (Phantom Black)




Price

256GB 12GB RAM -------- (Rs. 149,999)
512GB 12GB RAM -------- (Rs. 157,999)

NETWORK

Technology      GSM / CDMA / HSPA / EVDO / LTE / 5G

2G bands      GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 

                      CDMA 800 / 1900

3G bands      HSDPA 850 / 900 / 1700(AWS) / 1900 / 2100

                          HSDPA 850 / 900 / 1900 / 2100

                       CDMA2000 1xEV-DO

4G bands      1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 28, 30, 38, 39, 40, 41, 46,                                      48, 66, 71

5G bands      2, 5, 25, 41, 66, 71, 260, 261 SA/NSA/Sub6/mmWave

Speed              HSPA 42.2/5.76 Mbps, LTE-A (7CA) Cat20 2000/200 Mbps, 5G


LAUNCH

Announced          2021, August 11

Status          Available. Released 2021, August 27


BODY

Dimensions          Unfolded: 158.2 x 128.1 x 6.4 mm

                                 Folded: 158.2 x 67.1 x 14.4-16 mm

Weight              271 g (9.56 oz)

Build          Glass front (Gorilla Glass Victus) (folded), plastic front (unfolded), glass                                           back gorilla glass Victus), aluminum frame

SIM               Nano-SIM and eSIM

                   IPX8 water resistant (up to 1.5m for 30 mins)

                                 Stylus support


DISPLAY

Type          Foldable Dynamic AMOLED 2X, 120Hz, HDR10+, 1200 nits (peak)

Size          7.6 inches, 179.9 cm2 (~88.8% screen-to-body ratio)

Resolution          1768 x 2208 pixels (~374 ppi density)

                   Cover display:

                                 Dynamic AMOLED 2X, 120Hz, Corning Gorilla Glass Victus

                                 6.2 inches, 832 x 2268 pixels, 25:9 ratio


PLATFORM

OS                    Android 11, One UI 3.1.1

Chipset            Qualcomm SM8350 Snapdragon 888 5G (5 nm)

CPU            Octa-core (1x2.84 GHz Kryo 680 & 3x2.42 GHz Kryo 680 & 4x1.80 GHz Kryo                                        680)

GPU            Adreno 660


MEMORY

Card slot    No

Internal           256GB 12GB RAM, 512GB 12GB RAM

                     UFS 3.1


MAIN CAMERA

Triple            12 MP, f/1.8, 26mm (wide), 1/1.76", 1.8µm, Dual Pixel PDAF, OIS

                                12 MP, f/2.4, 52mm (telephoto), 1/3.6", 1.0µm, PDAF, OIS, 2x optical zoom

                                12 MP, f/2.2, 123˚, 12mm (ultrawide), 1.12µm

Features          LED flash, HDR, panorama

Video            4K@60fps, 1080p@60/240fps (gyro-EIS), 720p@960fps (gyro-EIS), HDR10+


SELFIE CAMERA

Single            4 MP, f/1.8, 2.0µm, under display

                                Cover camera:

                                10 MP, f/2.2, 26mm (wide), 1/3", 1.22µm

Features    HDR

Video            4K@30fps, 1080p@30fps, gyro-EIS


SOUND

Loudspeaker      Yes, with stereo speakers

3.5mm jack         No

                     32-bit/384kHz audio

                                Tuned by AKG

COMMS

WLAN              Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac/6e, dual-band, Wi-Fi Direct, hotspot

Bluetooth         5.2, A2DP, LE, aptX HD

GPS                         Yes, with A-GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, BDS

NFC                 Yes

Radio                 No

USB                  USB Type-C 3.2


FEATURES

Sensors                 Fingerprint (side-mounted), accelerometer, gyro, proximity, compass, barometer

                          Bixby natural language commands and dictation

                                Samsung DeX (desktop experience support)

                                Samsung Pay (Visa, MasterCard certified)

                                Ultra Wideband (UWB) support


BATTERY

Type                 Li-Po 4400 mAh, non-removable

Charging         Fast charging 25W

                                Fast wireless charging 11W

                                Reverse wireless charging 4.5W


MISC

Colors                 Phantom Black, Phantom Silver, Phantom Green

Models                 SM-F926B, SM-F926B/DS, SM-F926U, SM-F926U1, SM-F926W

SAR                  0.73 W/kg (head)     1.22 W/kg (body)    

SAR EU          1.04 W/kg (head)     1.44 W/kg (body)  


TESTS

Performance AnTuTu: 635918 (v8), 752218 (v9)

                       GeekBench: 12719 (v4.4), 3239 (v5.1)

                       GFXBench: 38fps (ES 3.1 onscreen)

Camera                 Photo / Video

Loudspeaker      -25.6 LUFS (Very good)

Battery life         Endurance rating 75h